Etrusca Menden

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Etrusca Menden

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There is some evidence suggesting a link between the island of Lemnos and the Tyrrhenians. The Lemnos Stele bears inscriptions in a language with strong structural resemblances to the language of the Etruscans.

However, the 1st-century BC historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus , a Greek living in Rome, dismissed many of the ancient theories of other Greek historians and postulated that the Etruscans were indigenous people who had always lived in Etruria and were different from both the Pelasgians and the Lydians.

For this reason, therefore, I am persuaded that the Pelasgians are a different people from the Tyrrhenians. And I do not believe, either, that the Tyrrhenians were a colony of the Lydians; for they do not use the same language as the latter, nor can it be alleged that, though they no longer speak a similar tongue, they still retain some other indications of their mother country.

For they neither worship the same gods as the Lydians nor make use of similar laws or institutions, but in these very respects they differ more from the Lydians than from the Pelasgians.

Indeed, those probably come nearest to the truth who declare that the nation migrated from nowhere else, but was native to the country, since it is found to be a very ancient nation and to agree with no other either in its language or in its manner of living.

The credibility of Dionysius of Halicarnassus is arguably bolstered by the fact that he was the first ancient writer to report the endonym of the Etruscans: Rasenna.

Their own name for themselves, however, is the same as that of one of their leaders, Rasenna. Similarly, the 1st-century BC historian Livy , in his Ab Urbe Condita Libri , said that the Rhaetians were Etruscans who had been driven into the mountains by the invading Gauls; and he asserted that the inhabitants of Raetia were of Etruscan origin.

The Alpine tribes have also, no doubt, the same origin of the Etruscans , especially the Raetians; who have been rendered so savage by the very nature of the country as to retain nothing of their ancient character save the sound of their speech, and even that is corrupted.

Adjoining these the Alpine Noricans are the Raeti and Vindelici. All are divided into a number of states.

The Raeti are believed to be people of Tuscan race driven out by the Gauls , their leader was named Raetus. The question of Etruscan origins has long been a subject of interest and debate among historians.

In modern times, all the evidence gathered so far by etruscologists points to an indigenous origin of the Etruscans. Several archaeologists who have analyzed Bronze Age and Iron Age remains that were excavated in the territory of historical Etruria have pointed out that no evidence has been found, related either to material culture or to social practices , that can support a migration theory.

This is evidence that the Etruscan civilization, which emerged around BC, was built by people whose ancestors had inhabited that region for at least the previous years.

However contacts between the inhabitants of Etruria and inhabitants of Greece , Aegean Sea Islands, Asia Minor, and the Near East are attested only centuries later, when Etruscan civilization was already flourishing and Etruscan ethnogenesis was well established.

The first of these attested contacts relate to the Greek colonies in Southern Italy and the consequent orientalizing period. A mtDNA study in stated that the Etruscans had no significant heterogeneity, and that all mitochondrial lineages observed among the Etruscan samples appear typically European or West Asian, but only a few haplotypes were shared with modern populations.

Allele sharing between the Etruscans and modern populations is highest among Germans seven haplotypes in common , the Cornish from South West England five haplotypes in common , the Turks four haplotypes in common , and the Tuscans two haplotypes in common.

A mitochondrial DNA study also concluded that the Etruscans were an indigenous population, showing that Etruscans' mtDNA appear to fall very close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe Germany, Austria, Hungary and to other Tuscan populations, strongly suggesting that the Etruscan civilization developed locally from the Villanovan culture , as already supported by archaeological evidence and anthropological research, [10] [57] and that genetic links between Tuscany and western Anatolia date back to at least 5, years ago during the Neolithic and the "most likely separation time between Tuscany and Western Anatolia falls around 7, years ago", at the time of the migrations of Early European Farmers EEF from Anatolia to Europe in the early Neolithic.

A genetic study published in the journal Science analyzed the remains of eleven Iron Age individuals from the areas around Rome, of which four were Etruscan individuals, one buried in Veio Grotta Gramiccia from the Villanovan era BC and three buried in La Mattonara Necropolis near Civitavecchia from the Orientalizing period BC.

The Etruscan civilization begins with the Villanovan culture , regarded as the oldest phase. In the last Villanovan phase, called the recent phase about — BC , the Etruscans established relations of a certain consistency with the first Greek immigrants in southern Italy in Pithecusa and then in Cuma , so much so as to initially absorb techniques and figurative models and soon more properly cultural models, with the introduction, for example, of writing, of a new way of banqueting, of a heroic funerary ideology, that is, a new aristocratic way of life, such as to profoundly change the physiognomy of Etruscan society.

In this phase, there was a heavy influence in Greece, most of Italy and some areas of Spain, from the most advanced areas of the eastern Mediterranean and the ancient Near East.

The last three phases of Etruscan civilization are called, respectively, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic, which roughly correspond to the homonymous phases of the ancient Greek civilization.

Etruscan expansion was focused both to the north beyond the Apennine Mountains and into Campania. However, it is certain that the political structure of the Etruscan culture was similar to, albeit more aristocratic than, Magna Graecia in the south.

The mining and commerce of metal, especially copper and iron , led to an enrichment of the Etruscans and to the expansion of their influence in the Italian peninsula and the western Mediterranean Sea.

This led the Etruscans to ally themselves with Carthage , whose interests also collided with the Greeks. Though the battle had no clear winner, Carthage managed to expand its sphere of influence at the expense of the Greeks, and Etruria saw itself relegated to the northern Tyrrhenian Sea with full ownership of Corsica.

Etruria's influence over the cities of Latium and Campania weakened, and the area was taken over by Romans and Samnites. Meanwhile, Rome had started annexing Etruscan cities.

This led to the loss of the northern Etruscan provinces. According to a legend the Etruscan League of twelve cities was founded by Tarchon and his brother Tyrrhenus.

Tarchon lent his name to the city of Tarchna , or Tarquinnii, as it was known by the Romans. Tyrrhenus gave his name to the Tyrrhenians , the alternative name for the Etruscans.

Although there is no consensus on which cities were in the league, the following list may be close to the mark: Arretium , Caisra , Clevsin , Curtun , Perusna , Pupluna , Veii , Tarchna , Vetluna , Volterra , Velzna , and Velch.

Some modern authors include Rusellae. During the later imperial times, when Etruria was just one of many regions controlled by Rome, the number of cities in the league increased by three.

According to Livy , the twelve city-states met once a year at the Fanum Voltumnae at Volsinii , where a leader was chosen to represent the league.

There were two other Etruscan leagues " Lega dei popoli " : that of Campania , the main city of which was Capua , and the Po Valley city-states in northern Italy, which included Bologna , Spina and Adria.

Those who subscribe to a Latin foundation of Rome followed by an Etruscan invasion typically speak of an Etruscan "influence" on Roman culture — that is, cultural objects which were adopted by Rome from neighbouring Etruria.

The prevailing view is that Rome was founded by Latins who later merged with Etruscans. In this interpretation, Etruscan cultural objects are considered influences rather than part of a heritage.

The main criterion for deciding whether an object originated at Rome and traveled by influence to the Etruscans, or descended to the Romans from the Etruscans, is date.

Many, if not most, of the Etruscan cities were older than Rome. If one finds that a given feature was there first, it cannot have originated at Rome.

A second criterion is the opinion of the ancient sources. These would indicate that certain institutions and customs came directly from the Etruscans.

Rome is located on the edge of what was Etruscan territory. When Etruscan settlements turned up south of the border, it was presumed that the Etruscans spread there after the foundation of Rome, but the settlements are now known to have preceded Rome.

Etruscan settlements were frequently built on hills — the steeper the better — and surrounded by thick walls.

According to Roman mythology , when Romulus and Remus founded Rome, they did so on the Palatine Hill according to Etruscan ritual; that is, they began with a pomerium or sacred ditch.

Then, they proceeded to the walls. Romulus was required to kill Remus when the latter jumped over the wall, breaking its magic spell see also under Pons Sublicius.

This in itself, however, is not enough to prove Etruscan origin conclusively. A heavily discussed topic among scholars is who was the founding population of Rome.

Certainly, the history of Rome before that date is not as secure as it later becomes, but enough material remains to give a good picture of the development of the city and its institutions.

Later history relates that some Etruscans lived in the Vicus Tuscus , [77] the "Etruscan quarter", and that there was an Etruscan line of kings albeit ones descended from a Greek, Demaratus of Corinth that succeeded kings of Latin and Sabine origin.

Etruscophile historians would argue that this, together with evidence for institutions, religious elements and other cultural elements, proves that Rome was founded by Italics.

The true picture is rather more complicated, not least because the Etruscan cities were separate entities which never came together to form a single Etruscan state.

Furthermore, there were strong Latin and Italic elements to Roman culture, and later Romans proudly celebrated these multiple, 'multicultural' influences on the city.

Under Romulus and Numa Pompilius , the people were said to have been divided into thirty curiae and three tribes. Few Etruscan words entered Latin , but the names of at least two of the tribes — Ramnes and Luceres — seem to be Etruscan.

The last kings may have borne the Etruscan title lucumo , while the regalia were traditionally considered of Etruscan origin — the golden crown, the sceptre, the toga palmata a special robe , the sella curulis curule chair , and above all the primary symbol of state power: The fasces.

The latter was a bundle of whipping rods surrounding a double-bladed axe , carried by the king's lictors. An example of the fasces are the remains of bronze rods and the axe from a tomb in Etruscan Vetulonia.

This allowed archaeologists to identify the depiction of a fasces on the grave stele of Avele Feluske, who is shown as a warrior wielding the fasces.

The most telling Etruscan feature is the word populus , which appears as an Etruscan deity, Fufluns. Populus seems to mean the people assembled in a military body, rather than the general populace.

The historical Etruscans had achieved a state system of society, with remnants of the chiefdom and tribal forms. In this, they were different from the surrounding Italics, who had chiefs and tribes.

The government was viewed as being a central authority, ruling over all tribal and clan organizations. It retained the power of life and death; in fact, the gorgon , an ancient symbol of that power, appears as a motif in Etruscan decoration.

The adherents to this state power were united by a common religion. Political unity in Etruscan society was the city-state, which was probably the referent of methlum , "district".

Etruscan texts name quite a number of magistrates , without much of a hint as to their function: The camthi , the parnich , the purth , the tamera , the macstrev , and so on.

The people were the mech. The chief ruler of a methlum was perhaps a zilach. The princely tombs were not of individuals. The inscription evidence shows that families were interred there over long periods, marking the growth of the aristocratic family as a fixed institution, parallel to the gens at Rome and perhaps even its model.

The Etruscans could have used any model of the eastern Mediterranean. That the growth of this class is related to the new acquisition of wealth through trade is unquestioned.

The wealthiest cities were located near the coast. At the centre of the society was the married couple, tusurthir. The Etruscans were a monogamous society that emphasized pairing.

Similarly, the behaviour of some wealthy women is not uniquely Etruscan. The apparent promiscuous revelry has a spiritual explanation.

Swaddling and Bonfante among others explain that depictions of the nude embrace, or symplegma, "had the power to ward off evil", as did baring the breast, which was adopted by western culture as an apotropaic device , appearing finally on the figureheads of sailing ships as a nude female upper torso.

It is also possible that Greek and Roman attitudes to the Etruscans were based on a misunderstanding of the place of women within their society.

In both Greece and the Earliest Republican Rome, respectable women were confined to the house and mixed-sex socialising did not occur.

Thus, the freedom of women within Etruscan society could have been misunderstood as implying their sexual availability. The Etruscans, like the contemporary cultures of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome , had a significant military tradition.

In addition to marking the rank and power of certain individuals, warfare was a considerable economic advantage to Etruscan civilization.

Like many ancient societies, the Etruscans conducted campaigns during summer months, raiding neighboring areas, attempting to gain territory and combating piracy as a means of acquiring valuable resources, such as land, prestige, goods, and slaves.

It is likely that individuals taken in battle would be ransomed back to their families and clans at high cost. Prisoners could also potentially be sacrificed on tombs as an honor to fallen leaders of Etruscan society, not unlike the sacrifices made by Achilles for Patrocles.

The range of Etruscan civilization is marked by its cities. They were entirely assimilated by Italic, Celtic , or Roman ethnic groups, but the names survive from inscriptions and their ruins are of aesthetic and historic interest in most of the cities of central Italy.

Etruscan cities flourished over most of Italy during the Roman Iron Age , marking the farthest extent of Etruscan civilization.

They were gradually assimilated first by Italics in the south, then by Celts in the north and finally in Etruria itself by the growing Roman Republic.

That many Roman cities were formerly Etruscan was well known to all the Roman authors. Some cities were founded by Etruscans in prehistoric times, and bore entirely Etruscan names.

Others were colonized by Etruscans who Etruscanized the name, usually Italic. The Etruscan system of belief was an immanent polytheism ; that is, all visible phenomena were considered to be a manifestation of divine power and that power was subdivided into deities that acted continually on the world of man and could be dissuaded or persuaded in favour of human affairs.

How to understand the will of deities, and how to behave, had been revealed to the Etruscans by two initiators, Tages , a childlike figure born from tilled land and immediately gifted with prescience, and Vegoia , a female figure.

Their teachings were kept in a series of sacred books. Three layers of deities are evident in the extensive Etruscan art motifs.

One appears to be divinities of an indigenous nature: Catha and Usil , the sun; Tivr , the moon; Selvans , a civil god; Turan , the goddess of love; Laran , the god of war; Leinth , the goddess of death; Maris ; Thalna ; Turms ; and the ever-popular Fufluns , whose name is related in some way to the city of Populonia and the populus Romanus , possibly, the god of the people.

Ruling over this pantheon of lesser deities were higher ones that seem to reflect the Indo-European system: Tin or Tinia , the sky, Uni his wife Juno , and Cel , the earth goddess.

The Greek heroes taken from Homer also appear extensively in art motifs. Öffnungszeiten auf der offiziellen Website anzeigen Kolpingstr.

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